White Wolf (MCU)'s powers and abilities
Artificially Enhanced Physiology
Barnes was one of many prisoners of war used in Zola's quest to recreate the Super Soldier Serum and received an alternate formula variation. There were no apparent effects at the time of his rescue by Steve Rogers, but the changes the serum caused in Barnes' body were sufficient to let him survive to plunge into an icy river at the bottom of a fall that should have killed him. Zola further refined Barnes' body in the Winter Soldier Program, ultimately creating an enhanced soldier with physical abilities equal to the Captain America, and without mental enhancements or psychological instabilities which continue to plague similar programs into the 21st century. Like Captain America, he too has early levels of superhuman conditioning, due to his Super-Soldier physiology.
As the Winter Soldier, Barnes's physical strength is immensely enhanced to the early levels of a superhuman condition by a series of treatments performed on him by HYDRA scientists. He has used his legs and right arm to strike enemies with tremendous force and his physical might is easily on par with Captain America.
Bionic Arm: HYDRA also removed the remnants of Barnes' severed left arm and replaced the missing limb with a cybernetic one. The bionic arm gives him extraordinary superhuman strength, superior to that of Captain America, though not quite on par with that of Spider-Man. Winter Soldier was able to rip open a S.H.I.E.L.D armored SUV, rip apart Falcon's EXO-7 suit, and smash concrete by punching it. With his bionic arm supporting his already enhanced natural strength, the Winter Soldier was shown to be able to overpower Captain America in a fight. Furthermore, the bionic arm also allows Winter Soldier to slightly damage Iron Man's Mark XLVII Armor (chest plate and glove) during his fight.
Winter Soldier's bones and muscles are apparently vastly denser and more resilient than a normal human's. He even managed to survive a fatal fall from immense heights into the Daube River in the Swiss Alps. Arnim Zola's further experiments greatly fortified his physique to the extent that he routinely leaps from significant heights onto hard surfaces and lands without any apparent injury. Bucky was able to leap off a bridge onto the top of a car below, crushing the roof and shattering the windows while he was unfazed by the landing. He was also able to withstand blows from various opponents that would have seriously injured or killed an average person. Winter Soldier withstood getting brutally hit by Iron Man and his energy blast.
Winter Soldier's speed is tremendously enhanced beyond the peak of human potential, moving into the early levels of superhuman condition. Barnes' speed is equal to both Black Panther and Captain America, as he was able to stay ahead of them with a slight head start. In combat, he can easily keep up with the extremely agile Black Widow and Black Panther.
Winter Soldier's enhanced agility is superior to even Olympic gold medalists. He could quickly leap on top of midsize cars in a single bound while running and do complicated acrobatic flips to avoid gunfire into cover.
Winter Soldier's musculature produces far fewer fatigue toxins during physical activity than the musculature of an ordinary human, allowing him to exert himself at peak capacity for hours before tiring. Hence, he could endure the Clash of the Avengers and the later showdown at the HYDRA Research Base without showing signs of fatigue.
Winter Soldier's reflexes are enhanced to extraordinary levels. His reflexes are responsive enough to catch Captain America's shield being thrown at him at a high velocity. He was also able to catch enemy grenades thrown at him, dodge fire from Falcon's Steyr SPPs, and leap on top of a moving car accelerating towards him with pinpoint accuracy.
Regenerative Healing Factor
Winter Soldier's body is able to heal with extraordinary speed and efficiency, that are beyond of a regular human being, though he is unable to regenerate missing limbs. This may be one of the factors of his survival from the Swiss Alps. Also, the injuries he had received during his battle with Iron Man healed in a matter of days without bruises or scars.
Master Martial Artist
Winter Soldier is an extremely skilled and formidable martial artist and hand-to-hand combatant, excelling at improvisation and weapons handling. Originally, Barnes was a three-time YMCA welterweight boxing champion. Later, as the first Winter Soldier, Barnes received vast training from HYDRA, as well as the United States Armed Forces. Combined with his enhanced physical abilities, Barnes became a dangerous master assassin who can slaughter dozens of enemies alone, take on and even overpower extremely skilled combatants such as Black Widow and Falcon with relative ease, be in charge of training the other Winter Soldiers, and go toe-to-toe with the likes of Black Panther and even Captain America himself. The two engaged in a brutal one-on-one fight, both matching each other with every move, though Rogers was ultimately able to defeat him in their second duel, he later beat Rogers after being released by Zemo, catching him off guard. Barnes also single-handedly killed up to a dozen well-armed Quinjet pilots in a single encounter, and escaped uninjured. Barnes easily overpowered a suitless Tony Stark, Sharon Carter, and Black Widow, all in rapid succession and fought evenly with Black Panther. Barnes also held his own repeatedly against T'Challa, even when he wears his Panther Habit. Although Barnes was briefly outmatched by Iron Man in Mark XLVII Armor, he later managed to beat him to submission. He employs mixed martial arts that include elements of Kali knife fighting, Boxing, Taekwondo, and Krav Maga.
Winter Soldier excels in knife fighting with an emphasis in Kali knife fighting. The Winter Soldier usually resorts to his combat knife in close quarters combat. He usually holds the knife in his natural hand and uses his bionic arm for support should he need more force to overpower an opponent, using a downward stab or tossing it between hands to advance his assault.
Barnes is highly proficient in handling firearms with remarkable precision, even prior to being turned into the Winter Soldier. During World War II, he shot a HYDRA operative that even Captain America did not see until he was down. As the Winter Soldier, he became an even deadlier master marksman. He accurately fired a single round through Black Widow's stomach and into a nuclear scientist that she was protecting, killing him. Winter Soldier is also capable of making long-range shots without the use of a rifle, for example, shooting Nick Fury multiple times through the wall of Steve Rogers' apartment and from the top of another building. As the Winter Soldier, Barnes has caught and handled Captain America's Shield on two occasions and showed impressive ability in doing so. He was also able to use his gun to swiftly take out many Outriders during the Battle of Wakanda. He even attempted to shoot Thanos to prevent him from extracting the Mind Stone out of Vision, only to be subdued by Thanos, who blasted him into the bushes with the Power Stone.
Winter Soldier is a master assassin. Ever since he's been brainwashed, Winter Soldier has lived in complete anonymity with most of the intelligence community not even believing he exists. He's been credited with over two dozen of HYDRA's most crucial assassinations in the last 50 years. He was even able to shoot Nick Fury while himself outside of Rogers' apartment, and shoot through Black Widow to take out his target.
Due to his extraordinarily enhanced agility and reflexes, Winter Soldier has shown immense capability in using flips to evade fire such as when he flipped to cover when he was being shot at by Falcon's Steyr SPPs. He could also maintain the balance of a moving motorcycle he was utilizing while engaged in a fight with Black Panther.
Winter Soldier was able to hijack a Quinjet after killing the pilot, he also effortlessly flew a helicopter in Berlin.
Barnes speaks his native English, as well as fluent Romanian and seasoned Russian (albeit with a thick accent). It is shown that he can also understand (and possibly speak) German. He most likely is able to speak and understand a multitude of other languages as well, seeing as he mentioned that the other Winter Soldiers knew over thirty languages.